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Colorado recently passed a law creating consumer protections for interactions with artificial intelligence systems. The law specifically identifies high-risk systems, including in those that impact health care. The law requires risk mitigation, documentation and robust governance.

Monique N. Bhargava has written an in-depth article on the law and what it means for AI regulation in

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has finally published the minimum staffing rule for Long Term Care facilities in the Federal Register, which starts the clock for compliance with some provisions of the rule.

But what does the rule actually do? And what do facilities have to do in order to come into

In a final rule published on April 26, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) amends the HIPAA Privacy Rule to bolster protections for individuals’ reproductive health information. This final rule comes almost exactly a year after HHS published its draft rule on the subject.

The rule is part of the Biden administration’s effort to address the Supreme Court’s 2022 decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization. Dobbs’ reversal of Roe v. Wade resulted in a patchwork of state laws governing abortion, some of which require or permit health care providers to release personal information about reproductive health care to state authorities for patients who sought an abortion.

The rule is scheduled to take effect on June 25, 2024 and most provisions will be enforceable as of December 23, 2024. Below, we summarize in more detail some of the notable changes to the HIPAA Privacy Rule. Continue Reading HHS Modifies HIPAA Privacy Rule to Shield Reproductive Health Information from Third Party Access

Making good on its promises to enhance oversight of Medicare Advantage (MA) and Medicare Part D plans, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has submitted for public inspection its Contract Year 2025 Final Rule. The final rule, published in the Federal Register on April 23 and taking effect on June 3, 2024, codifies existing MA and Part D sub-regulatory guidance, adds a number of new policies for Contract Year 2025 and implements provisions of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (BBA) and the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023 (CAA 2023).

The rule contains many substantive changes to current MA and Part D requirements. The most impactful sections of the rule include: (1) changes to the Part D formulary, including substitutions of biosimilar biological products; (2) modification of agent and broker compensation requirements for MA plans; (3) codification of consent requirements within the MA regulations for the sharing of personal beneficiary data between third party marketing organizations (TPMOs); (4) standardization of the MA Risk Adjustment Data Validation Appeals Process; (5) changes to the Part D medication therapy management program eligibility criteria; (6) changes to contracting standards and limitations on dual-eligible special needs plans; and (7) changes to the network adequacy standards within MA to add a new facility-specialty type called “Outpatient Behavioral Health”.

Also notable is what CMS does not address in the rule – CMS declined to establish what qualifies as an identification of an overpayment that needs to be returned to avoid False Claims Act violations. That potential standard has been in the works since the Contract Year 2023 rule, but stakeholders have to keep waiting as CMS notes that it may be the subject of a future rulemaking.Continue Reading Are you listening, Medicare Advantage and Medicare Part D Plans? It’s CMS (Again)

Last week, on April 18, several federal agencies jointly launched a “one-stop shop” to facilitate reporting of allegedly anticompetitive behavior in the health care sector. While there has always been a complaint portal for the antitrust agencies, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Antitrust Division

The U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments yesterday in the two consolidated cases challenging the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of mifepristone. Throughout the questioning, the Justices focused on both the standing of the plaintiffs to bring the cases and on the suitability of the remedy sought.

The Court is expected to rule on the case in late June or early July. Although the Court has a 6-3 majority of justices appointed by Republican presidents, the questioning by the justices and the areas that they focused on seemed to indicate that any judicially-imposed limitations on both the FDA’s approval of the drug and the FDA’s current restrictions on the dispensing of mifepristone may be narrow.

At different times during the argument, both liberal and conservative Justices mixed together in the thrust of their questions in a way that could result in this case being a close decision with many different opinions or even resulting in a majority decision that would allow continued dispensation of the drug due to standing considerations.Continue Reading SCOTUS Arguments on Mifepristone Cases Focus on Standing and Remedy

Not a question that we thought we would be asking more than a year after the large omnibus package was signed into law by President Biden. But here we are, with a federal judge in Texas ruling on Feb. 27 that the House’s passage of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023 (P.L. 117-328) (CAA, 2023) violated the “quorum clause” of Article I, Section 5 of the U.S. Constitution.

The court’s ruling puts in jeopardy a number of substantive health policy provisions if it is allowed to stand. Many of the provisions of the act that could be overturned were designed to sunset at the end of 2024 and some have since been reauthorized. But some, like the FDA’s new cosmetic regulatory regime that was included in the Modernization of Cosmetics Regulation Act of 2022 (MoCRA) are more permanent and are now under threat.

The court’s decision limited its impact to only one aspect of the law and enjoined that provision only as applied to public employees in Texas, but the court’s analysis of the way that the law was passed calls into question the entire appropriations act. The Department of Justice (DOJ) has 60 days from the court’s decision to appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. The agency has filed a notice of compliance with the court indicating that neither the DOJ or Equal Employment Opportunity Commission will enforce the law against the state or its agencies.Continue Reading Was the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023 Legitimately Passed by the House?

The Department of Justice (DOJ) reported that its False Claims Act (FCA) recoveries for civil cases raked in approximately $2.7 billion for fiscal year 2023, representing a $450 million jump from 2022 recoveries.  Of the $2.7 billion recovered by the DOJ for 2023, approximately $1.8 billion (67%) came from the health care sector.

The real headline, however, may be the record-setting number of new FCA cases initiated in 2023 ­–– 500 initiated by the government and 712 initiated by private relators, for a total 1,212 new cases, over 250 more than the next-highest year (2022). Previous trends aside, this signals busy times ahead for the FCA.Continue Reading DOJ Announces $2.7 Billion in FCA Recoveries and Enforcement Priorities

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Department of Labor, and Department of the Treasury (collectively, “the departments”) recently confirmed that they will hold firm to the March 14, 2024 extended deadlines for initiating both new and previously initiated batched disputes or single disputes involving air ambulance services in the No Surprises Act Independent

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has issued a final rule governing the use of medications for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD). In the rule, the first major update in 20 years, the agency made permanent some of the telehealth flexibilities that were put into place to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and made a number of other changes similarly aimed at improving patient access to and reducing stigma of OUD treatment.

Additionally, with this rule, SAMHSA updated accreditation and certification requirements for opioid treatment programs (OTPs) as required by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023 (CAA). The rule, which was printed in the Federal Register on February 2, 2024, takes effect April 2, 2024, and has a compliance date of October 2, 2024.Continue Reading SAMHSA Finalizes Major Update to Rules Governing Opioid Treatment Program Requirements

Building on prior requests for information and an increased focus on Medicare Advantage oversight, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has issued another request for information (RFI) seeking input on data needed for Medicare Part C, also known as the Medicare Advantage (MA) program. The goal of this RFI, which was published in the Federal Register on January 30, 2024, is to provide CMS with feedback on both the format and types of data that will allow CMS to have better insight into MA organizations and their operations and to consider future rulemaking. Responses to the RFI are due by May 29, 2024.

This RFI is an extension of CMS’s General MA RFI published in August 2022, which generated over 4,000 responses from various stakeholders. The 2024 RFI broadly seeks input on “all aspects of data related to the MA program—both data not currently collected as well as data currently collected.” The eventual goal is to make MA data commensurate with data available from Medicare Parts A and B to ensure appropriate transparency into MA organizations and to address perceived shortcomings through additional rulemaking.Continue Reading CMS Issues RFI for Medicare Advantage Data

The Department of Health and Human Services Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) has published its first final rule on Health Data, Technology and Interoperability. The rule, known as the HTI-1 rule, takes effect on February 8, and governs updates to the ONC’s Health IT Certification Program, as well as regulations on information blocking.

Among the program criteria that the rule addresses include those related to decision support, electronic case reporting and standards-based application programming interfaces (APIs). To address the question of information blocking, the rule provides refined definitions of statutory terms and identifies practices that cannot constitute information blocking as they are considered by ONC to be “reasonable and necessary.”Continue Reading ONC Finalizes Information Sharing and Algorithm Transparency Rule

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released a final rule today governing federal protections for health care workers exercising their right to nondiscrimination on the basis of conscience objections.

The rule, entitled, Safeguarding the Rights of Conscience as Protected by Federal Statutes, is scheduled to be published in the Federal Register on Thursday, January 11 and will take effect on March 11, 2024. The rule effectively repeals the majority of a Trump-era rule that was blocked by federal court orders before it even went into effect.

The new rule reinstates provisions of an Obama-era rule that placed the Office for Civil Rights (OCR), the HHS office that handles nondiscrimination enforcement, in charge of coordinating complaints for violations of the conscience protections of various federal laws. The rule also implements a voluntary notice provision that establishes an industry best practice to alert employees to their rights under the laws.Continue Reading HHS Repeals Most of 2019 Health Care Conscience Protection Rule

On Nov. 8, 2023, the Senate Finance Committee voted 26-0 to approve the Better Mental Health, Lower Cost Drugs, and Extenders Act. Among its other provisions, the bill, for which final legislative text has not yet been released, would, for the first time, mandate minimum prices that Medicare Part D plans, and the pharmacy

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has published its final rule that requires nursing homes enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid to disclose additional ownership and management information to CMS and state Medicaid agencies. The rule finalizes CMS’s proposed rule from February, with just two differences, as we describe further below.

The rule implements Section 1124(c) of the Social Security Act, which was added by the Affordable Care Act to require the disclosure of additional information about ownership and oversight of nursing facilities. Medicare-enrolled skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and Medicaid-enrolled nursing facilities (NFs) will soon be required to report many detailed aspects of their ownership and management structure, including both the executive leadership and any members of the facilities’ governing bodies.

CMS plans to gather the information in 2024, beginning when the revisions to the Form CMS-855A is completed, regardless of where a facility is on its current five-year revalidation schedule. The information will then be made publicly available within one year.

Of note in the final rule is that CMS declined to finalize a broad definition of “real estate investment trust” (also known an “REIT”) from its February proposed rule and instead has finalized a definition that it finds more consistent with current federal law and industry practice.Continue Reading CMS Finalizes Nursing Home Ownership Rule

As promised back in April in an announcement of its plans to modernize compliance program guidance, the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued the first of its new guidance documents for the health care industry on November 6, 2023. The first release is a general compliance program guidance (GCPG) designed to serve as a resource to all segments of the health care industry, regardless of the particular items or services offered.

In its newest release, OIG reiterates its view that the GCPG is by its very nature a voluntary guidebook that can act as a roadmap for a compliance program to follow, but that it is not binding on any individual or entity in the health care industry. This updated GCPG includes the following information for health care compliance programs, which we summarize further below: (1) key Federal authorities for entities engaged in health care business; (2) the seven elements of a compliance program; (3) adaptations for small and large entities; (4) other compliance considerations; and (6) OIG processes and resources.

Additional industry specific compliance guidance documents will be forthcoming, according to OIG, with its first updated guidance setting the stage for those to follow.Continue Reading HHS OIG Issues General Guidance as First Step in Effort to Modernize Compliance Guidance

In an advisory opinion released on October 13, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Inspector General (OIG) approved a plan by a muti-specialty practice to pay its employed physicians bonuses related to outpatient procedures performed by those physicians at ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs) operated by the physician practice entity requesting the opinion (the Requestor).

According to the facts as presented by the Requestor, the practice employs a group of physicians across a range of specialties. The Requestor also operates two ASCs as corporate divisions of the practice’s legal entity and not as subsidiaries or affiliates. The Requestor plans to pay each employed physician who performs a procedure at either of the ASCs a quarterly bonus equal to 30% of the net profits generated by the facility fees that are directly attributed to that physician’s procedures performed at the ASCs during the preceding quarter.

Notably, there is no indication in the request that the bonus payments would be based solely on the professional component of services personally performed by the physicians; the measurement of profit per physician would be expected to include the technical component of the procedures.Continue Reading OIG Permits Multi-Specialty Practice to Pay Doctors Bonuses for Outpatient Procedures

On October 31, FDA will be offering a webinar on its proposed rule ”Medical Devices; Laboratory Developed Tests.”

This webinar comes about a month after FDA issued a proposed rule revising 21 C.F.R. Part 809 (specifically, 21 C.F.R, § 809.3) to state, explicitly, that in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) are medical devices, even if they are developed and manufactured in a laboratory setting.

This category of tests is generally referred to as “laboratory developed tests” (LDTs) and FDA has historically extended enforcement discretion, accepting the availability of certain LDTs outside of the FDA device clearance and approval pathway.

Of course this has not been a straightforward situation: we have seen decades of debate among FDA and industry stakeholders about the exact boundaries of FDA’s expressed enforcement discretion—where those boundaries should lie, and even interpretation (gleaned from enforcement action) of more precisely where they do, in FDA practice, actually lie.Continue Reading The Latest Episode of the LDT Drama: FDA Issues Long-Awaited Proposed Rule for Laboratory Developed Tests

UPDATE: Late in the evening of September 28, the House defeated H.R. 4368 by a vote of 191-237, with 27 Republicans voting against the bill. It was the only one of the four appropriations bills to fail.

Editor’s Note: This post was originally published at 11:15 PM EST on September 27, 2023 while the House of Representatives was still voting on amendments to other appropriations bills.

A group of conservative Republicans in the House of Representatives’ proposed Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2024 (H.R. 4368) would rescind the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s January 2023 change to the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) program to allow certified retail pharmacies to dispense mifepristone as part of a medication abortion regimen. The proposal would effectively limit retail pharmacy dispensing of the only medication that is labeled for medication abortion.Continue Reading GOP House Bill Proposes Repeal of Retail Pharmacy Dispensing of Mifepristone

In a proposed rule sent to the federal register public inspection list on Sept. 1, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) announced a long-awaited minimum staffing requirement for Long Term Care (LTC) facilities that participate in the Medicare and Medicaid programs.

The proposed rule, set for publication in the Federal Register on Sept. 6, would create a floor for staffing in Medicare and Medicaid participating LTC facilities for both registered nurses (RN) and nurse aides (NA). Additionally, CMS is also seeking input on need to add on a minimum total nurse staffing requirement with the rule.

The staffing levels that the rule proposes exceed the current minimum staffing requirements of nearly every state. In the rule, CMS indicated that its proposed staffing requirement is merely a floor that could be adjusted upward based on acuity of resident need and that it may revisit the levels in later rulemaking with an eye toward increasing the staffing requirement even further.Continue Reading CMS Proposes National Minimum Nursing Staff Requirements for LTC Facilities