On September 15, 2020, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) issued guidance to state Medicaid directors on how to advance value-based care (VBC) across their health care systems, with an emphasis on Medicaid populations, and how to share pathways for adoption of such approaches. Within the 33-page letter, CMS highlights the merits of VBC; provides an assessment of key lessons learned from early state and federal experiences in implementing VBC reforms, as well as a comprehensive toolkit of available federal authorities for states to adopt for innovative payment-reform efforts within their Medicaid programs; and stresses the importance of multi-payer alignment in VBC to drive care transformation. Notably, however, the guidance does not address prevalent concerns among providers and industry about what types of VBC arrangements could run afoul of federal and state fraud and abuse laws and/or which entities can participate in such arrangements.
Merits of Value-Based Care Arrangements
Under VBC arrangements, providers are rewarded—based on specific evidence of performance on negotiated quality measures—for helping patients improve their health, reduce the effects and incidence of chronic disease, and live healthier lives. That is, VBC arrangements can hold providers accountable by tethering reimbursement to their ability to improve quality of care in a cost-effective manner or lower costs while maintaining standards of care, rather than the volume of care they provide. Moreover, according to the guidance, VBC can be a part of the solution to reducing health disparities in the health care system and handling unexpected challenges, including those brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Value-Based Payment as Key Driver
CMS points to value-based payment as the key driver of VBC. Accordingly, the guidance highlights and explains critical elements of value-based payment design and operations, including:
- Level and scope of financial risk;
- Benchmarking; and
- Payment operations.
Additionally, the guidance discusses in depth several key considerations for states pursuing value-based payment, including:
- Multi-payer participation;
- Assessment of delivery system readiness;
- Robust health information exchange and technology;
- Stakeholder engagements;
- Quality measure selection; and
Availability of Alternative Payment and Delivery Models
To further facilitate the advancement of value-based payment methodologies in state Medicaid programs, the guidance outlines the key features and applicable Medicaid authorities for various payment and service delivery models, with examples of each, including:
- Payment models built on fee-for-service architecture;
- Payments for “episodes of care”; and
- Payment models involving total cost of care accountability.
The guidance notes that these payment models are not mutually exclusive, and ultimately encourages states to consider the adoption of one or more of them—or, if need be, pursue other delivery system reforms via section 1115(a) waiver authority—depending on their individual program circumstances and reform goals.
Lack of Detail Surrounding What Types of Value-Based Care Arrangements are Impermissible and/or Which Entities Can Participate in Such Arrangements
Significantly, despite the strong push by CMS for state movement towards VBC, the guidance does not provide any discussion or detail about what types of VBC arrangements could run afoul of federal and state fraud and abuse laws and/or which entities can participate in such arrangements. Without clear (or at least better) guideposts for providers and industry, active participation in VBC arrangements will continue to be stifled by ongoing concerns about the potential risk of liability.
Overall, the guidance represents a step in the right direction towards VBC at the state level. According to CMS, although many states have made progress, there remain growth opportunities for more states to improve health outcomes and efficiency across payers through adoption of value-based payment models. Should you have any questions related to VBC and navigating federal and state fraud and abuse laws, please do not hesitate to reach out to the health care attorneys at Reed Smith.