According to a recent OIG report, CMS made $26.2 million in payments to Medicare Advantage (MA) organizations for approximately 1,600 unlawfully present beneficiaries from 2010 through 2012, even though federal health care benefits are not allowable for individuals who are not lawfully present in the United States. The OIG attributes to inappropriate payments to CMS’s failure to notify the MA organizations of the unlawful-presence information in its data systems; as a result, MA organizations could not prevent unlawfully present beneficiaries from enrolling or disenroll beneficiaries whose unlawful-presence status changed after they had enrolled. The OIG recommends that CMS recoup these payments and implement policies and procedures (consistent with policies under the fee-for-service program) to notify MA organizations of unlawful-presence information.