CMS has been monitoring the impact of implementation of the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) PPS in January 2011 on health outcomes for beneficiaries receiving outpatient maintenance dialysis. A new CMS report, “ESRD Prospective Payment System (ESRD PPS) Overview of 2011 Claims based Monitoring,” concludes that, while the ESRD PPS impacted utilization of certain ESRD-related services and procedures, no sustained changes in Medicare beneficiary health status were observed in 2011.