A recent GAO report describes federal oversight of GPOs, which negotiate contracts with vendors on behalf of hospitals and other providers. According to the GAO, since 2004, the HHS OIG has participated in two case investigations with the Department of Justice (DOJ) that involved allegations that certain GPOs did not comply with safe harbor requirements and violated the Anti-Kickback statute, but the OIG has not imposed administrative penalties on any GPOs in that timeframe. The GAO identified one lawsuit filed by DOJ against a GPO in 2007, but the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has not taken any enforcement action against a GPO since 2004. The report also discusses GPO self-regulation through the Healthcare Group Purchasing Industry Initiative (HGPII), including formation of an ethics advisory council and a vendor grievance process in 2010.