As part of an Administration-wide effort to combat fraud and abuse in government programs, CMS is launching a “chiropractic services supplemental measure study” to focus on whether chiropractic services billed to Medicare were medically-necessary, covered acute chiropractic treatments. For each claim selected, CMS will review medical records up to 12 months prior to the date of service on the claim. The agency will deny claims for services determined to be maintenance therapy and recoup any overpayments. CMS urges all chiropractors who receive a letter for this chiropractic services supplemental measure study to respond to the request for medical records immediately upon receipt of the letter; failure to respond within 30 days will result in a full denial of the claim, as well as a possible fraud referral.