On October 28, 2008, CMS informed state health officials of CMS policy regarding the refunding of the federal share of Medicaid overpayments, damages, fines, penalties, and any other component of a legal judgment or settlement when a state recovers pursuant to legal action under its state False Claims Act (FCA). CMS notes that many states have enacted their own FCA statutes modeled on the Federal False Claims Act, and numerous questions have arisen regarding Medicaid overpayment identification, investigation, and refunds of the federal share when that overpayment is attributable to fraud and abuse. Additionally, the letter explains what amounts must be returned to the federal government on any recovery, the proper accounting of the relator’s share and litigation expenses, and the time frame for refunding the federal share of any state FCA recovery.