On August 8, 2008, CMS published the Medicare skilled nursing facility (SNF) prospective payment system (PPS) final rule for FY 2009, which includes a 3.4% inflation update that CMS estimates will increase overall payments by $780 million. Most notably, CMS did not adopt a controversial provision included in its May 7, 2008 proposed rule to recalibrate case mix weights to compensate for increased expenditures resulting from refinements made in January 2006. The recalibration would have cut overall SNF PPS payments by 3.3% ($770 million) in FY 2009.  The preamble to the final rule also addresses several SNF policy issues, including, among others, revisions to the Minimum Data Set (MDS), development of an integrated post-acute payment system, rehabilitative services in SNFs, and consolidated billing.