CMS published a final rule June 27, 2008 establishing appeals processes for all providers and suppliers whose enrollment, reenrollment, or revalidation application for Medicare billing privileges is denied and whose Medicare billing privileges are revoked. It also establishes timeframes for deciding enrollment appeals by an Administrative Law Judge or the Departmental Appeals Board, and processing timeframes for CMS’ Medicare fee-for-service contractors. In addition, the rule allows Medicare contractors to revoke Medicare billing privileges when a provider or supplier submits claims for services that could not have been furnished to a beneficiary. The rule also specifies that a Medicare contractor may establish a Medicare enrollment bar for any provider or supplier whose billing privileges have been revoked. Finally, the rule requires all providers and suppliers to receive Medicare payments by electronic funds transfer upon submitting an initial enrollment application to Medicare, changing enrollment information, or revalidating or re-enrolling in the Medicare program. The rule is effective August 26, 2008.