During consideration of S. 1200, the Indian Health Care Improvement Act Amendments on February 14, the Senate approved an amendment by Senator Mel Martinez to increase civil and criminal penalties for Medicare fraud and abuse. In short, the amendment would double maximum civil penalties, quadruple maximum criminal fines to $100,000, and double the maximum sentences for felonies. Note that an earlier version of the amendment also would have increased the amount of the surety bond required for DMEPOS suppliers from $50,000 to $500,000, but that provision was subsequently dropped. Also during debate on S. 1200, the Indian Health Care Improvement Act Amendments, the Senate approved an amendment offered by Sen. Barbara Mikulski that would block implementation of CMS’s December 4, 2007 interim final rule on Medicaid targeted case management services until April 1, 2009. The Senate approved S. 1200 on February 26; it now awaits House consideration.